1.) At one time, a person wasn't allowed to join the musicians' union unless they could sight read music at a professional level. One had to take a performance test to gain entry to the union. I wonder how many of us would fail that requirement now? 2.) Black musicians were not alllowed to join the musicians' union at all. PERIOD. Black music, and Black musicians were considered inferior to their White counterparts. The Black musicians promptly formed their own unions, some of which still exist. The mainstream unions eventually relented on both of the above, once they realized that 'thar was money in them thar hills' that could be collected in the form of dues and performance royalties. It had nothing to do with a sudden discovery of a corporate conscience.